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Chartered Accountant CA


A Chartered Accountant is skillful in minimization of losses as well as maximization of profits by not breaching any laws and industry guidelines. He is able to perform roles according to the type and size and nature of the organization. Their work may involve the preparation of financial reports and budgets, maintenance of records, provide consultancy on various financial matters. They are appointed to avail professional services and advice on investment matters also in order to maximize profits.

Work Roles

  • Perform analysis of financial statements in order to ensure compliance with laws and guidelines.

  • File income tax and GST returns, prepare tax reports, and calculate taxes.

  • Ensure accounting procedures are being followed consistently.

  • Analyze and review books of accounts for maintaining the efficiency of the accounting system of the company.

  • Advice different but legal measures for reduction of costs, increase revenue, and improve profits.

  • Measure risk and take steps to avoid or reduce it.

  • Provide guidelines to their clients regarding tax planning and tax issues on mergers and acquisitions.



  • Social status is really good.

  • They get good remuneration.

  • A good field for people with less social interaction.

  • Demand for CA professionals is ever-increasing.

Career Opportunities

  • Public/ Private Practice Practice

  • Government Organizations

  • Business Enterprises

  • Corporate finance

  • Not for profit organizations

  • Banking and Insurance Sector

  • Law Firms

  • Civil Services


  • CPT can be taken by 12th pass or graduates or postgraduates and it is held twice a year in the months of June and December. 

  • The graduates and postgraduates can directly enroll for IPC examination. 

  • The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) administers the CA exams all over India and is the only institute for it.



  • Hard work is a must in this field along with a lot of patience.

  • Hard to maintain balance in life due to long working hours.

  • It's not easy to settle down in a career soon.

Career Paths

XII in Commerce Stream 

Step 1 - Clear the Competency Professional Test (CPT). 

Step 2 - Clear Integrated Professional Competence (IPC) Examination. 

Step 3 - Seek Articleship for 3 years 

Step 4 - Clear the CA final exam

Class XII in Commerce Stream

Pursue Bachelors of Commerce

Clear Integrated Professional Competence (IPC) Examination. or MBA along with CA

  • Step 1 - Clear IPCC Examination.

  • Step 2 - Pursue Articleship for 3 years

  • Step 3 - Clear the CA final exam

Cost Accountant

Cost Accountant


It is expected from a Cost Accountant to have knowledge of budgeting, cost management, performance evaluation and asset management within a company. Their work is to prepare financial reports for tax authorities, creditors, stockholders and the regulatory authorities. They may get opportunities to reach upto high level positions in the corporate world.

Work Roles

  • Responsible for performing cost accumulation tasks being a member of the target costing group. 

  • Perform activities like budgeting, cost management, performance evaluation, and asset management.

  • Create financial as well as financial plans for the organization by working with executive teams.

  • Responsibility like preparation of financial reports for tax authorities, creditors, stockholders, and regulatory authorities.

  • Analyze and collect data in order to determine costs of business activities like raw materials, inventory and labor.

  • Compare standard costs with the actual cost of production through preparation and study of reports.



  • Huge opportunities to rise up to a high level.

  • Perks and pay are really good for cost accountants.

  • Ever-increasing demand is a benefit.

Career Opportunities

  • Government sector

  • Education sector

  • Business Organizations

  • Banks


  • Exams for the qualification of the cost management accountant is conducted by The Institute of Cost Accountants of India.

  • Registration is open for the ICAI course throughout the year.

  • Students who apply before 31st January of that year will appear for June Term Examination and if applied before 31st July of the year will appear for December Term Examination.

  • Both an education requirement and an experience requirement are needed to pass the exam.

  • The course requires foundational knowledge of economics, basic statistics, and financial accounting

  • CMA (Certified Management Accountant) is a global professional qualification that is awarded by IMA (Institute of Management Accountants, USA)



  • Creativity is crushed in such monotonous work.

  • Long working hours.

Career Paths

XII from Commerce Stream compulsory

  • Pursue 8 months Foundation course

  • Pursue 10 months Intermediate course 

  • Pursue 18 months Final course

XII from Commerce Stream compulsory

  • Pursue graduation in any field 

  • Pursue 10 months Intermediate course 

  • Pursue 18 months Final course

XII from Commerce Stream compulsory

  • Pursue graduation in any field except fine arts for 3 years.

  • Enroll for the program of Certified

Chartered Financial Analyst 


Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) is trained to make sound financial decisions and investment policies of multinational companies. He is knowledgeable in different areas ranging from management accounting to financial as well as investment management. They have a huge demand in the financial sector, in institutions like insurance companies, banks, and other corporations due to their specialty in investment analysing.

Work Roles

  • Analyze investment risk and take investment decisions accordingly.

  • Keep track of all the developments in the industrial sector, business, finance as well as economic theory.

  • Make a comparison of different securities in the specific industry.

  • With the help of all the financial analysis, they prepare plans of action for investment.

  • Provide guidance to public companies, investment firm staff regarding the type of investments that are made.

  • Decide and suggest the prices on which the securities are to be offered to the public.



  • Their knowledge level is very high as they cover many subjects.

  • Demand in this field is very high.

Career Opportunities

  • Portfolio Manager

  • Research Analyst

  • Financial Consultant and Advisers

  • Corporate Financial Analyst


  • One must meet the following criteria to become CFA:

    1. Have a bachelor’s degree,

    2. Should be in the final year of a bachelor’s degree program,

    3. Four years of professional work experience is a must or

    4. A combination of professional work and university experience is required 

  • A valid international passport is also needed.

  • The Program is offered in a self-study format and there are three levels of exams. The Level I exam is held in June or December whereas the other 2 levels of exams are held in June. The test centers in India are Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Pune.



  • Completing the course takes time.

  • A lot of patience is required for course completion.

  • It doesn't have that much value if done alone.

Career Paths

XII in Commerce Stream

Bachelor’s degree in any field (Finance Recommended)

Take the CFA program of 4 years

Chartered Financial Analyst CFA
Company Secretary

Company Secretary (CS)


A company secretary is supposed to connect the company with its BOD, shareholders, govt. as well as other regulatory authorities. His responsibility is to advise the company on better governance strategies, compliance of laws and regulations, arbitration, negotiation and conciliation in commercial matters such as finance, taxation, accounting and many more. His role is to ensure whether the decisions taken by board of directors are put into implication or not.

Work Roles

  • Decide and prepare for board meetings and committee meetings.

  • Monitor the company's application of its policies and ensure compliance of rules and regulations.

  • Responsible for handling statutory books of the company, including register of members, directors and secretaries.

  • Ensure employees' health and safety and govern matters regarding property and it's insurance.

  • Coordinating with external regulators and policymakers and advicers.

  • Keep track and remain updated of all the recent changes in the laws and regulations.



  • Respect for a company secretary is very high.

  • The salary package is high.

  • They get opportunities to handle top-level management decisions.

Career Opportunities

  • Independent Practitioners as a CS

  • Corporate Sector


  • The Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) is constituted under an Act of Parliament i.e. the Company Secretaries Act, 1980 (Act No. 56 of 1980). It  is the only recognized professional body in India that develops and regulates the profession of Company Secretaries in India.

  • Enrollment for CS is open throughout the year and examinations is conducted twice a year in June & December.



  • Working hours are really long.

  • Hard work in this field is a must and one has to study a lot too.

  • It's hard for them to maintain a balance between professional and personal life.

Career Paths

XII in Commerce Stream

  • Pursue 8 months foundation program

  • Pursue 1-year Executive Program

  • Pursue 1-year Professional Program

XII in Commerce Stream

  • Pursue graduation in any Commerce field

  • Pursue 1 year Executive program

  • Pursue 1 year Professional Program 

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